The new STAR FRONTIERS® combat system is similar to the expanded combat system in the Alpha Dawn game rules in many ways. For example, the procedures for surprise, initiative, declaration, movement, and combat turns are identical. It uses the same character abilities as the old system, so modification of veteran characters is very simple fo rthe referee. But this combat system is very different in its resolution.

This new combat system uses an integrated resolution system completely different in its method of determining whether a character has hit a target and, if so, how much damage is done. This was described briefly in the Resolution System section. With this new system, only one roll is needed to determine whether an attack hit and how much damage it caused. More emphasis is placed on weapon skills than on the character's ability scores. This allows the players more freedom in creating and playing their characters, and gives the ma better chance of surviving combat.

If the new combat system had to be described in one word, it would be "streamlined." The emphasis is on speed and simplicity of play. The combat system is explained in its entirety in this section. Some sections from the Alpha Dawn rules are repeated here as a convenience, to reduce cross-referencing between two books.


The combat sequence is identical to the original combat sequence. A quick outline of this sequence is presented below, followed by a detailed explanation of each step. Wherever a dice roll must be made for non-player opposing forces, the referee makes that roll.

  1. Check to see if any character is surprised.
  2. Roll for initiative. (Throughout the combat rules, the side with initiative is called side A and the side without initiative is called side B.)
  3. Announce what each character will do. Side B declares first.
  4. Side B moves. Characters on side A may shoot at opponents moving through their field of fire.
  5. Side A moves. Characters on side B who did not move may shoot at opponents moving through their field of fire.
  6. Side A resolves any wrestling attempts, remaining weapon fire, weapon tosses, and melee. Wrestling attempts are resolved before other types of combat.
  7. Side B resolves any wrestling attempts, remaining weapon fire, weapon tosses, and melee. Wrestling attempts are resolved before other types of combat.


The referee should decide which characters may be surprised by an attack. Any character who may be surprised should make an Intuition check.

If a character fails the check, he does not suspect anything and will be surprised. When a character of group is surprised, it automatically loses initative for the first combat turn and can do nothing that turn but move and take cover.

If a character passes the check, he notices something unusual in the situation that "tips him off": moving shadows, footsteps behind him, etc. It is up to the player as to how the character reacts to this information.

Visibility: When characters have an encounter, one factor that affects whether they can be surprised is how far they can see, or visibility. A character standing on flat, level ground can see a man-sized object up to 1 kilometer away, but cannot see any details about the object. A character can see datils at a distance of about .5 kilometer. Of course the weather and terrain can alter the visibility drastically. Snow, fog, rain, forest, hills, blowing dust, or heat shimmers can diminish visibility from half the normal distance down to a few meters. Optical enhancement devices can multiply the distances. Binoculars and magnigoggles, for instance, triple the normal visibility. A character can see farther if he climbs to a higher elevation, but the distance at which he can see detail does not change with elevation.


One player on each side rolls 1d10 and adds the highest Initiative Modifier (IM) on his side to the result. The side with the highest total has initiative and is side A this turn. If the results are tied, the side with the highest modifier has initiative.

If there are more than two teams in a fight, simply add more sides (C, D, etc.) to the sequence as they are needed. The side with the lowest initiative roll always moves first, with the other sides following in order. If only a few characters are involved in a fitght, the referee can treate each character as a separate team and have everyone roll his own initiative.

Holstered and Slung Weapons: If a character's weapon is in a holster or slung over his shoulder, the character must subtract 3 from his Initiative Modifier when rolling for initiative. If the caracter is rolling initiative for a group, the modifier applies to the entire group. If the group is mixed (some characters holding their weapons, some not), then any Initiative Modifier reduction for the group is at the referee's discretion.


All characters must decide what they will do at the start of each turn and declare their intentions before the first move. The referee declares for the characters' opponents. Side B must declare first, allowing side A to react to side B's moves. Declarations should be as realistic and specific as possible. For example, instead of saying, "I will throw a grenade," the player should say, "I will throw a doze grenade, set to explode on contact, at the Sathar and then duck back behind the wall." Declarations must include how many shots are to be fired, what power settings or bursts are to be used (if applicable), what grenade or warhead types are to be used (if applicable), and any other weapon variables that will affect the situation (see Rate of Fire, Variable Power Settings, Bursts, and other related sections in the Alpha Dawn rules).

Sighting: If the opponents cannot see each other the referee may ask for declarations before the intiative. This forces players to act without knowning what their opponents will do.

A character must be able to see his target in order to shoot or throw a grenade at it. A character can see his target is a straight line from the center of his square (or miniature base) to the center of his target's square (or miniature base) is not blocked by an obstacle. If the character is in a position where he can lean around, over, or under the obstacle to shoot, it does not block his sight.


Moving Through Fields of Fire: Characters on Side B move first. If a character moves through an opponent's field of fire, the opponent may shoot at him as he moves. Everything in front of a character is in his field of fire; see Opportunity Shots. Side A moves after side B. If a character from side A moves through an opponent's field of fire, and the opponent did not move this turn, the opponent may shoot at him as he moves.

Melee Distance: When a character starts a turn withing two meters af an opponent who has declared he will attack the character in melee, the character cannot move. If both characters declare they are attacking each other in melee, the character on side B gets to move into his opponent's square. The only exception to this is the Humma's special ability to charge (see Melee).

Dodging: Dodging is a special type of movement. Instead of running straight across an opponent's field of fire, a dodging character ducks, weaves, and zigzags through a dangerous area. Dodging makes a character harder to hit, but also slows him down; characters who dodge move at one-half their running speed but are considered a fast-moving target on the Combat Modifiers Table.


The structural points of various types of doors, walls, and vehicles are shown for comparison sake on the Structural Points table.


Before reading any further, make sure you have read the chapter on the new resolution system. The following is based on that chapter.

Dexterity Modifier: The revised combat system relies less on a character's Dexterity than on his weapon skills. However, Dexterity is still a factor. A character with high Dexterity will be a slightly better shot or fighter than someone who is clumsy. Check the Dexterity Modifier table to determine a character's Dexterity Modifier (DM).

Maximum Damage: The new combat system has a completely different method of determining how much damage is caused caused by a successful attack. Every weapon has a maximum damage number., even those that are special or have variable power settings. The weapon never causes more damage than that number. If a player rolls a successful attack, he need only note which color result area his roll is in to determine how much damage the attack caused.

A Cobalt result means that the target suffers the maximum damage. A Blue result means that the target only received three-quarters of the maximum damage. A Green result indicates that only one-half the maximum damage was inflicted. A Yellow result shows that only one-quarter of the maximum damage was inflicted on the target. Therefore, if a character using a maser penetrator (maximum damage = 32) rolls in the Cobalt result area, all 32 points of damage are delivered to the target. If the attack roll was in the blue result area, only 24 points would hit the target. A Green result would deliver 16 points, while a Yellow result would tag the character with 8 points of damage. This is the damage a target takes before any reductions for armor or screens. The Fractional Results table lists the damage caused by a three-quarters, one-half, or one-quarter attack.

Combat Result Shifts (RSs): Shifting result areas change the amount of damage an attack causes. For example, a +1 RS changes three-quarters damage to full damage.

New Weapons Classifications: Besides covering some new weapons, the weapons and skills are grouped together differently. The original rules had ranged and melee weapons, but the new rules reorganize these into ranged weapons, area effect weapons, and melee weapons.


Any weapon that attacks from a distance and delivers its damage primarily to a single target is called a ranged weapon. In the new combat system, ranged weapons include beam weapons, needlers, auto-weapons, byrojet weapons, and micro-missiles.

Primitive ranged weapons, such as javelins or bows and arrows, may also be included.


  1. The attacking character's skill level with the weapon establishes the base column on the Resolution Table. If the character has no applicable weapon skill, his base column is Level /0.
  2. Apply all appropriate combat modifiers, Dexterity modifiers, and shift columns for the left and/of right. The final result is the strike column.
  3. Roll percentile dice and locate the final result on the Resolution Table. If the result is in a white area, the attack fails; if in a colored area, the attack succeeds.
  4. If the attack is successful, the amount of damage delivered to the target is determined using the colored result areas. The effect or armor or screens is then considered.


The Resolution Table accounts for automatic hits and misses. Any roll of 25 or less always hits, even on the -X column, and any roll of 98 or more always misses, even on the +X column.

Automatic Hits: There are two kinds of automatic hits. The first is a shot that cannot miss. An example of this is a cahracter who holds a gun next to a canister of compressed air and pulls the trigger; there is no way the character an miss the canister. The referee must use his common sense to decide when a shot cannot miss.

The second type of automatic his happes when a player rolls 01 or 02 on his roll to hit. Such a low roll obviously hits and causes maximum damage. Its benefit is that a -1 Result Area Shift has no effect; the attack still causes maximum damage. This is the only way to cause maximum damage when attacking with a -1 RS.

Automatic Misses: Any shot will miss on a roll of 98-00, no matter what the character's chance to hit is. This rule applies even to shots the referee has decided cannot miss; the player must roll the dice anyway, and on a roll of 98-00 his weapon malfunctions and fails to fire.

Some shots, of course, are just impossible to make due to range, limited visiblity, etc. Again, it is up to the referee's common sense to identify these impossible shots.


Skill Levels: The weapon skill level possessed by a character for a weapon he is using determines his base column on the Resolution Table. Beam weapons Level 2, for example, makes colun +2 the character's base column when firing a beam weapon.

Any character who uses a weapon without possessing the necessary skill for that weapon uses the 0 column for his base column and suffers a -1 Result Shift. No matter how many positive column or result shifts apply to the situation, his strike column can never shift to the right past the /0 column and he can never get a Cobalt result (unless he rolls 01 or 02). The strike column can, however, shift left all the way to the -X column.

Heavy Weapons: Heavy lasrers, sonic devastators, and rafflur M-10s are considered heavy weapons. When a character fires one of these mounted weapons he has a -1 Column Shift modifier. A character with no training in that weapon uses Level -1 as his base column.


Range: All weapons have three ranges: short, medium, and long. Shooting at targets at medium range has a -1 CS modifier. Targets at long range have a -2 CS modifier.

The new combat system divides weapons into six groups: small defensive devices; pistols, long pistols and short rifles; normal rifles; long-range weapons; and missiles. All of the weapons within each group have the same ranges. For example, all pistols have short range of 20 meters, medium range or 60 meters, and long range of 125 meters.

The range groups are letter coded. The appropriate code is listed behind each ranged weapon on the Weapons table. The range groups are defined on the Weapon Ranges table.

Telescopic Sights: Telescopic sights allow a weapon to be treated as if it was in the next higher range group (see their description in the Equipment section).

Movement: All movement, whether running, dodging, flying, or in vehicles, is confined to two simple modifiers, one for moving slowly and one for moving quickly. Notice that the modifier applies to both the target and the attacker; that is, if both the attacker and the target are moving slowly, the total modifier is -2 CS. "Slow" is around the speed of a jogging human or a gently loping animal. "Quick" is anything faster than slow.

Target Size: A number of different concepts are combined in the target size modifier. In addition to the actual size of the target (man-sized, larger, or smaller) these modifiers also represent the amount of the target showing. If a man-sized target is lying prone, is half-hidden, or is otherwise partially concealed, it should be considered smaller than man-sized when being shot at. In the same way, a large creature that is burrowed into the ground or partially blocked by an obstacle is a smaller target, probably man-size.

Advantage Modifier: The advantage modifier is for any condition that is either advantageous or disadvantageous to the attacker. If the attacker is in a better position than the defender (above or behind him, for example), or if the defender is disadvantaged (encumbered, surprised, stunned, drugged, etc.), the attack gains a +1 CS for each distinct advantage he has. Likewise, if the attacker is disadvantaged (in a poor combat condition, surrounded by attackers, encumbered, or groggy himself) or if the defender is at an advantage, then the attacker has a -1 CS for each distinct disadvantage he has. Advantages and disadvantages are announced by the referee before the dice roll.

Unusual Firing Procedure: Three specific actions are covered by this modifier. Careful aim requires a character to not move during his turn and take only one shot. He does not need to rest or brace his weapon on anything, but he can do nothing during the turn except fire one shot. If the character is shot or hit in melee during the turn, the character loses the bonus. This bonus does not apply to bursts or thrown weapons.

Using the wrong hand for firing or wielding a one-hand weapon is still a negative combat modifier, except for those creatures who are ambidextrous, like Vrusks.

Using two weapons at once may seem very heroic to some character, but it still garnishes a negative combat modifier in addition to the negative modifier for using the wrong hand with one of the weapons if the character is not ambidextrous. These weapons can be fired at different targets, if the targets are adjacent to each other.

There are no modifiers for being wounded. The adrenaline boost from being in a fight counters the character's pain.


Energy Settings: Certain ranged weapons have energy settings -- the amount of energy used (and damage caused) can be set by the character. These weapons are indicated by the notation "pS" (per SEU) under the Maximum Damage column on the Weapons table.

At the beginning of the combat sequence, when a character must declare his intentions, the setting of his weapon must also be declared. The maximum damage is then considered to be the amount listed multiplied by the setting. For example, a player running a Star Lawman using a Ke-1500 Laser long pistol declares his setting to be 8 SEU. In the Maximum Damage column the Ke-1500 is shown to cause 12 points fo damage per SEU used, and 12 x 8 = 96 maximum points of damage.

The energy setting for a weapon can be changed only at the beginning of aturn and the rate of fire for that turn cannot exceed a single shot.

Rate of Fire: Some weapons can be fored more than once during a turn (this is different from a burst, which is considered one shot). Characters must declare how many shots they will fire at the start of a turn. The attacker rolls to hit separately for each shot. The rate of fire for each weapon is shown on the Weapons Table.

Bursts: Auto-pistols and auto-rifles can fire a burst of 10 bullets as one shot. A burst can be aimed at up to five adjacent targets in an area up to 10 meters wide, or at just one character. While firing a burst covers a greater area, it also severely throws off the attacker's aim. Therefore the two factors cancel each other out with a combat modifier or 0. Only one die roll is needed to hit all targets. If the burst is aimed at one target, the maximum damage caused is 44 points. If it is aimed at mroe than one target, the maximum damage is 44 points plus 12 points of each additional target. These points are divided as evenlt as possible among the targets. Any leftover points of damage are lost.

For example, a character firest a burst from his 5.56 caliber auto-rifle at a group of five pirates charging toward him. The rolled result is a hit, so all five take damage. The maximum damage is 44 plus (5 x 12 = 60) = 104 points. The maximum damage is 104 points, but the player's dice roll is in the Green area so only one-half the maximum damage, or 52 points, is inflicted. The 52 points divided between the five pirates gtives each pirate 10 points of damage, the leftover 2 points are discarded.

Opportunity Shots: Characters who are firing more than one shot during the turn can aim at an area instead of an opponent, if the area is no more than 5 meters wide. If an opponent moves through this "covered" area, the character can fire a shot at him. Opportunity shots are like Careful Aim shots; the character can do nothing else that turn, but an Opportunity shot cancels the negative CS modifier for target movement. This tactic is useful if opponents are hidden at the start of the turn.

Shooting at Targets in Crowds: If a character fires a weapon at someone who is standing in a crowd, the target is treated as smaller than man-sized (or man-sized, if the target is larger than man-sized). If the shot misses the intended target, the attacker should make a second roll on column -X to see if his shot hits someone else. The referee decides who the shot hits. This rule also applies th shots at targets that are in melee and attempts to shoot past someone who is partially obscuring a target.

Ammunition and Reloading: Players must keep track of their character's ammunition. Weapons that require powerpacks can be operated from powerclips or from power beltpacks. The eception to this is the rafflur series of weapons and WarTech's bolt weapons (see the description of these weapons in the Equipment Section). Beltpacks and powerpacks can power other equipment besides weapons, however, so players must keep accurate records of their power supply.

A character can reload a weapon with a fresh clip or attack it to a different powerpack in one turn if he does not run or dodge. A weapon cannot be fired on the turn it is reloaded.

Structural Damage: The amount of damage caused by ranged weapons used against structures is shown on the Structural Damage table.


Any weapon that inflicts its damage over a wide area iscalled an area effect weapon. In the new Star Frontiers combat system, area effect weapons include all grenades, explosives, missiles (excluding the micromissile), and mines.


  1. The attacking character's skill level with the weapon establishes the base column on the Resolution Table. In unskilled, the base column is /0.
  2. Apply all appropriate combat modifiers, Dexterity modifiers, and shift columns to the left and/or right. The final result is the strike column.
  3. Roll percentile dice and locate the final result on the Resolution Table. If the result is in the White area, the attack fails, but the attacker rolls 1d10 and consults the Area Effect Weapon Miss Diagram to determine where the weapon landed. The referee then determines if anyone or anything was damaged in the area.
  4. If the result is in the Yellow, Green, or Blue areas, it means that the target received the indicated amount of damage but the weapon actually landed and exploded off-target. The attacker rolls 1d10 and consults the Area Effect Weapon Miss Diagram to determine where the weapon landed. The referee then decides whether anyone or anything else was damaged in the explosion. If the result is in the Cobalt area, it means that the target was the center of the explosion to determine whether anyone or anything else was damaged in the explosion. The effect of armor or screens is then considered.

Automatic Hits and Misses: Automatic hits and misses are identical to those for ranged weapons.

Skills: Skill use is identical to that for ranged weapons.

When an attacker wishes to throw a grenade or explosives pack, he uses his grenade or demolitions skill level, not his throwing skill level. A character can throw a grenade (or up to 500 grams of explosion) a distance equal to the sum of his Strength and Dexterity scores divided by 4. This factor should be determined when the character is created and changed only when ability scores go up or down. Write this throwing score on your character sheet for easy reference.

Combat Modifiers: No range modifiers apply to thrown area-effect weapons; if it is within the characters range, it is close enough. Missiles always use range category F.

The interpretation of "slow" and "quick" is different for missile combat. When firing a missile at a target, the referee should consider not only how fast the target is moving, but how far away it is. A jetcopter flying at full speed within 50 meters of an attack is moving quickly. Flying at the same speed hundreds or meters away it may be considered to be moving slowly. The referee must use his common sense.

The only time target size is considered is if the target is relatively huge in comparison to the attacker. Then a +1 CS may be granted to the attacker. Generally, though, area effect damage negates the consideration of size.

Rate of Fire: Note that the type I missile's rate of fire is listed as variable. This applies to MLTCs (Multiple Launch Tube Clusters) that commonly fire type I missiles and can be automated to launch more than one at a time. Normally a hand-held type I missile has a rate of one launch per turn. Type II missiles require two turns to launch and type III's take three turns to launch. All grenades, whether fired or thrown, have a rate of one per turn, except the small, sonic marble grenades, up to three of which can be tossed or fired per turn.


Immediate and Secondary Blast Areas: When TD-19 packs and type I through type III missiles detonate, the blast radius listed on the Weapons table is the immediate blast area. Everyone in the immediate blast area rolls at the level of the attack to see what damage they receive (Cobalt = maximum, Blue = three-quarters, Green = one-half, Yellow and White = one-quarter). Then armor and screens, Stamina Checks for certain warheads, and other defenses are considered.

If the blast ocurs in the open, there is a secondary blast area. The secondary blast area has 1.5 times the radius of the immediate blast area. For example, if the immediate blast area has a radius of 15 meters, the secondary blast radius extends anohter 7.5 meters, from 15 meters to 22.5 meters from the blast point. Anyone outside the secondary blast area but withing the secondary blast area must pass a Reaction Speed check. Characters who fail the check must roll on column +1 of the Resolution Table. The results of that dice roll are interpreted on the Area Effect Weapon Result table.


A grenade has no secondary blast area.

A grenade can be set to explode in one of two ways, either on contact or with its built-in timer. A character tossing a grenade must declare at the beginning of the turn which method he is using.

A Cobalt result when throwing a grenade means it hit its target. If it is set to explode on contact, it has no chance to bounce around. If it is set on a timer, or it does not make a direct hit, the referee must use the Area Effect Weapon Miss diagram.

If the grenade was set to explode on contact, it detonates 1 to 10 meters away from the target in the direction indicated by the Area Effect Weapon Miss diagram. The actual distance depends on the situation and how far the grenade was thrown; the actual distance depends on the situation and how far the grenade was thrown; the referee must use his discretion. The referee also should check for any damage caused to anyone or anything in the blast area.

If the grenade is on a timer then it could bounce quite a distance. The direction is determined by the Area Effect Weapon Miss diagram. The diagram could be anything up to one-half the distance from the thrower to the target. Again, the referee should check for daamge caused to characters or objects other than the target in the blast area.

Explosives: Explosives do have secondary blast areas.

Fifty grams of Tornadium D-19 ("kaboomite") causes maximum damage of 40 points to anyone or anything within 1 meter of the explosion. Each additional 50 grams causes an additional 25 points of damage. The immediate blast area increases by 1 meter for every 100 grams used. Up to 250 grams of TD-19 can be thrown like a grenade, and causes full damage to living creatures but only half damage to structures.

Tornadium D-20 is a shaped charge. It has no secondary blast area. TD-20 is shaped so that its blast is focused in a single direction, rather than blasting equally in all directions. If anyone is foolish enough to throw a charge of TD-20 as a weapon, use the Area Effect Weapon Miss Diagram to determine in which direction the blast is released. The blast radius per gram is identical for TD-20 and TD-19. A thrown cahrge of TD-20 causes full damage to strucctures, but only half damage to living creatures.

Plastid cannot be thrown.


When the result of a strike roll for a type I, II, or III missile is in a White area it indicates that the attack was a complete miss: the missile's detonation was too far away to do damage to the target. The attacker must roll 1d10 and consult the Area Effect Weapon Miss diagram to see in which direction the missile strayed. The referee should determine the distance the missile overshot or undershot its target (anywhere from 20 to 50% of its flight distance) and check the immediate and secondary blast areas for inadvertent damage.

When the result of a strike roll for a type I, II, or III missile lands in a Cobalt area, it indicates that the missile landed on target.

When the result of a strike roll for a type I, II, or III missile lands in a Blue, Green, or Yellow area it indicates that the missile did not hit dead center, but that the target is in the immediate blast area. A roll on the Area Effect Weapons Miss diagram indicates in which direction the missile was off. The extent of the miss is at the referee's discretion, but the target must be in the immediate blast area.

Mines: Mines have no secondary blast areas.

Certain type I missile warheads can be affixed with detonators and unusual delivery systems (outlined in the Equipment section) and used as mines. The warheads that can be used in such a manner are the electrical discharge, field crusher, gas, high explosive, sonic, standard explosive, and tangler warheads designed for use with type I missiles.

Gas: Gas used in grenades, missile, or mines does not necessarily affect huge creatures. Doze and poison grenades may not contain enough gas to affect the huge creature's respiratory system. The number of gas grenades needed to possibly affecct a creature is equal to its current Stamina when the grenade his, divided by 50, rounded down (but never less than one).

Structural Damage: The amount of structural damage caused by grenades and missiles is shown on the Structural Damage table. The amount of structural damage a grenade causes is always doubled it if is placed rather than thrown. Structural damage from TD-19 and 20 is explained in the individual descriptions.


Fighting hand-to-hand or with non-ranged or non-area effect weapons is called melee. Characters must be within two meters of each other to engage in melee. (Humma are an exception, being allowed to charge.)


  1. The attacking character establishes his base column on the Resolution Table, using either the /0 column or, if he has an appropriate hand-to-hand combat skill, using that skill level.

  2. Apply all appropriate combat and Dexterity modifiers and shift columns to the left and/or the right. The final result is the strike column.

  3. Roll percentile dice and locate the final result on the Resolution Table. If the result is in the White area, the attack fails; if in a colored area, the attack succeeds.

  4. If the attack is successful, the amount of damage caused to the opponent is announced, using the colored result areas to determine the portion of damage inflicted. The effect of armor or screens is then considered.

Automatic Hits: There are two kinds of automatic hits in melee. The first is hitting a character who cannot defend himself (one who is being held by another character or is stunned). Anyone attacking a defenseless characcter gets a +3 Column Shift and a +3 Result Shift if the victim is conscious, or scores an automatic hit doing maximum damage if the victim is unconscious.

The second type of automatic hit happens when an attacker rolls 01 or 02 on his roll to strike. When this type of automatic hit is made the opponent takes maximum damage and is knocked unconscious for 1d100 turns.

Skills: Melee relies heavily on a character's martial arts and melee weapons skills. Any character who has no skill levels in melee weapons or martial arts uses the 0 column on the Resolution Table and suffers a -1 Result Shift. No matter how may positive column or result shifts apply to the situation, his strike column never shifts to the right past column /0 and his result area can never be higher than blue. The strike column can, however, shift left all the way to the -X column.

Two skills specifically apply to melee: Weapons: Martial Arts and Weapons: Melee Weapons.

Ability: While skill is the dominating factor in melee, physical ability also comes into play. The player can use his character's Dexterity Modifier (and must use it, if it is negative) to modify his strike column. If the character's Strenght score is higher than his Dexterity score, the player can use a Strength modifier instead. The Strength modifier is determined in exactly the same way as the Dexterity Modifier.


Battle Rage: Yazirians have a special ability to work themselves into a fighting frenzy, gaining a +2 Column Shift on their chance to strike in melee. A Yazirian must roll a number less than or equal to his battle rage score on 1d100 to become enraged. Yazirians can try to become enraged once per combat situation.

Charge Spring: Humma can spring great distances. This gives them a form of charge bonus in combat. Unlike the other races, which must be within two meters to engage in melee, a Humma can spring up to 25 meters horizontally and, if it lands within two meters of an opponent, make a free melee attack against the opponent.


After each melee weapon on the Weapons table is a column shift number. A character using that type of weapon modifies his strike column accordingly.


A character gets one bare-hand attack for every arm-leg pair he has. Humans, Vrusk, Yazirians, Ifshnit, Osakar, and Sathar always get to make two attacks. Because of their weakened forearms, Humma make only one attack, unless charging. A Dralasite can attack twice if it has four or five limbs, three times if it has six or seven, etc. Mechanons may have varying types and numbers of attacks depending on their structure and programming. Any character using a weapon in melee makes only one attack per turn.


Punching: The amount of damage a character inflicts with his bare hands (or claws or pseudopods) depends on the character's Strength score. Simply take one-tenth of the character's Strength, rounded down, and that gives you the damage he does when punching. This damage is constant unless the character's Strength improves.

Stunned: A stunned character cannot attack, move, or defend himself for as long as he is stunned.

Melee Weapons: The maximum damage column on the Weapons table shows how much damage each weapon can do. Add to this the character's punching damage from above. Characters using shock gloves, sonic knives, sonic swords, or stunsticks do not add their punching score. It is this entire, adjusted maximum damage that is considered when the colored result area isfound on the Resolution Table.

For example, a haracter with a Strength score of 72 uses a medium sword to strike an opponent wearing a skeinsuit. The final result is in the Blue result area. The maximum damage of a medium sword by itself is 20. Added to this is the attacker's punching score of 7 (one-tenth of 72, rounded down) for an adjusted sccore of 27. A Blue result means that the target received three-quarters of the adjusted maximum damage or 20 points. The target is wearing a skeisuit which absorbs another one-fourth of the damage or 5 points. Thus the defender suffers 15 points of damage from the attack.


Wrestling: The base column for wrestling is the character's Martial Arts skill level or, if unskilled, Level 0.

A character attempting to wrestle can try to grab an opponent and pin him down by twisting his are, getting a headlock, etc. Wrestling is resolved after movement but before other attacks. The attacker can use no weapon while wrestling. If the attack succeeds, the character rolls on the +X column every turn afterward to maintain the hold (a 98-00 means the hold slipped). The color result area determines how much of the atacker's punching score damage is inflicted each turn. A character can release a hold whenever he wants.

A character who is pinned can do nothing except try to break out of the hold. To do this, he must wrestle his opponent; a successful roll means the character has twisted free, but he has not grabbed or pinned his opponent.

A character or creature can only wrestle his opponents that are the same size or smaller than itself. Only one wrestling attempt can be made per turn.

Disarming: A character who tries to force his opponent to drop a weapon must make a strike roll with his Martial Arts level or, if unskilled, Level 0, with a -2 Column Shift modifier. If the attack succeeds, the opponent drops the weapon but does not receive any damage. Either character can try to pick up the weapon. Doing so requires a 1d100 roll that is equal to or less than the character's Dexterity score.

Number of Attackers: A character can be atacked by up to three opponents at once, if the opponents are the same size as the character. If the attackers are larger or smaller than their opponents, the referee must decide how many can attack at once.

Weapons: A character who is involved in melee can shoot a pistol at an opponent that is in melee with him, but cannot shoot at anyone who is not involved in the melee. Long pistols or short rifles may be fired in melee, but there is a -2 Column Shift to strike; normal rifles receive a -3 Column Shift to strike. The referee should check to see if any misses hit someone else (see Shooting in Crowds).


The amount of damage caused by melee weapons is shown on the Structural Damage table.


Whenever a character in freefall or zero ravity enters into combat, he must make a eaction Speed check. If he fails the check, he character has lost his balance and is pinning out of control. A spinning character an do nothing until he regains control.

To regain control, the character must pass Reaction Speed check. The character can ake a check at the end of every turn, starting the turn after he loses control. If he passes the check, he has regained control nd can move and attack on the next turn.

Characters who are wearing magnetic or velco-soled boots and charaters who are firing any beam weapon never lose control.


Animals: Combat with animals usually starts with ranged combat. If an animals has a special ability that lets it attack from a distance, it follows normal ranged weapon combat rules (unless it is an area effect). If the animal is still alive when it reaches melee distance, the normal melee rules are used. Animal attak numbers, used in the Alpha Dawn combat system, now have level equivalents for the animal's base column. Those equivalent are listed on the Animal Attack Conversion table.

Robots: A robot's base column is +1 with a +1 Column Shift for each of the robot's levels. This number is used in all combat. A robot's Intiative modifier is its level plus three. Other combat modifiers apply as well.

Remote weapon systems usually are controlled by mainframe computer security maxiprogs. Their base column is +2 with a +1 Column Shift for each program level. Their Initiative modifier is their level plus three.